2. Henk van Mastrigt
Distribution of Papilionoidea in lowlands and low hills in West Papua
Since 2001 many surveys have been held by K.E.P. and teachers and students of the Cenderwasih University: Fak-Fak (FF, 2005), Numfor Island (NU, 2005), Moor and Mambor Islands (MM, 2003), Supiori (SU, 2004), Yapen (YA, 2006,2007), Mamberamo district (MB, 2001,2004,2005), Kumamba Islands (KK, 2002), Pantai Timur Islands (PT, 2001) and Ubrub (UB, 2003). Based on Parsons (1999) 427 species butterflies are present in West Papua below 900 meters above sea level. In the various surveys we collected or observed 310 species, which means 72,60% of Parsons’ total number. Table 1 shows the distribution per family and subfamily, concerning the various surveys. The number of Lycaenids (64,71%) is below the average; the number of Nymphalids (83,22%) is the highest one. In the Mamberamo area we collected and observed 70% of the 310 species we found or 50,82% of the total number of species in the lowlands (however, we made three surveys in that area); on the second place is the Fak-Fak area (48,39%; 35,13%), where we only spend ten days; followed by Yapen (41,61%; 30,21%), Ubrub (36,45%; 26,46%) and so on till the Pantai Timur Isles (19,03%; 13,82%). From the 310 species we observed only twelve species (3,87%) were found at all nine localities: Ornithoptera priamus, Papilio aegeus, Eurema puella, Hypolycaena phorbas, Jamides celeno, Danaus affinis, Euploea tulliolus, Taenaris artemis, Cyrestis acilia, Pantoporia venilia, Hypolimnas bolina and Vindula arsinoe; another twelve species were found on eight localities: Antrophaneura polydorus, Graphium agamemnon, Papilio ambrax, Eurema hecabe, Arhopala philander, Psychonotis caelius, Catopyrops ancyra, Jamides coritus, Everes lacturnus, Yoma algina, Cethosia cydippe and Cupha prosope. 25 species (8,06%) were found at seven localities; 19 species (6,13%) at six; 24 species (7,74%) at five, 23 species (7,42%) at four, 38 species (12,26%) at three, and 57 species (18,39%) at two localities One hundred species were only found at one locality. From these one hundred 44 species were found in the Mamberamo area, 18 at Supiori, 13 at Fak-Fak, 7 at the Moor and Mambor Islands and also at Yapen, 4 at Ubrub, 3 at the Kumamba Islands and 2 at Numfor and at the Pantai Timur Islands. Because of various reasons it is hard to compare the different areas. However, it can be stated that the biodiversity in the Mamberamo area and at Fak-Fak is high. Supiori Island has quite a few endemics. More surveying in Ubrub and Fak-Fak will increase the number of species in the areas.